Book Review of Modern Physics and Ancient Faith, Stephen M. Barr
The overthrow of a dominant system can involve two kinds of revolutionaries. Some act as insurgents: they attack the system from within using whatever weapons are available to them as members of the system. Others function as invaders: they begin outside the system and attack it with a wider range of weapons not limited to those available within.
Both kinds of revolutionaries are necessary for an intellectual revolution, the overthrow of a paradigm of thought. The insurgents are necessary because the participants in the reigning paradigm are likely to be impervious to outside critiques. Initially, they will only feel the weight of criticisms that are addressed to them in the intellectual framework to which they are accustomed. The insurgents are thus the “shock troops” that open up the debate enough to allow for the possibility of a complete revolution of ideas. The insurgents are necessary but not sufficient, however, because they will tend to fall short of a truly radical critique of the paradigm by their life-long, on-going participation in it structures. Outside reinforcements must bring in the new ideas that can culminate in the final overthrow of an existing intellectual order.